९.०: २९०.१अथकर्मपदार्थनिरूपणम् ।
Lets now begin the discussion on movements.
९.१: २९०.२उत्क्षेपणादीनाम्पञ्चानामपिकर्मत्वसम्बन्धः ।
Throwing upwards and the other four are all related (belong) to the genus Action.
एकद्रव्यवत्त्वम्क्षणिकत्वम्मूर्तद्रव्यवृत्तित्वमगुणवत्त्वम्गुरुत्वद्रवत्वप्रयत्नसम्योगजत्वम्स्वकार्यसम्योगविरोधित्वम्सम्योगविभागनिरपेक्षकारणत्वमसमवायिकारणत्वम्स्वपराश्रयसमवेतकार्यारम्भकत्वम्समानजातीयानारम्भकत्वम्द्रव्यानारम्भकत्वम्चप्रतिनियतजातियोगित्वम्। दिग्विशिष्टकार्यारम्भकत्वम्चविशेषः ॥
They belong to a single substance (at a time) (1-i-17); they are momentary (1i-n-25). ; they reside only in corporeal substances (Il-i-21) ; are without qualities (14 – 17); are produced by gravity, fluidity, effort and conjunction (14-29 ) ; are counteracted by conjunctions produced by themselves (I-i-l4i) ; are the independent causes of conjunctions and disjunctions (20, 30) ; they serve only as non-material causes ; are productive of effects inhering in their own substrates as well as in the substrates of others ; they never produce effects of the same kind as themselves ; they are not productive of substances (14-21, 22, 31) ; they belong to distinct well-defined classes. The distinctive feature of each of the five kinds of Actions, consists in the direction in which its effect is produced.
९.२.१: २९१.१०तत्रोत्क्षेपणम्शरीरावयवेषुतत्सम्बद्धेषुचयदूर्ध्वभागिभिःप्रदेशैःसम्योगकारणमधोभाग्भिश्चप्रदेशैःविभागकारणम्कर्मोत्पद्यतेगुरुत्वप्रयत्नसम्योगेभ्यस्तदुत्क्षेपणम् ॥
As regards the action of throwing upward, it is that action which brings about the conjunction of the parts of the body and things in contact with these parts, with points of space above them and also the disjunction of these from those below them; this action is produced by Gravity, Effort, and Conjunctions (141-7).
९.२.१: २९१.१७तद्विपरीतसम्योगविभागकारणम्कर्मापक्षेपणम् ॥
That action which brings about conjunctions and disjunctions in directions other than those just mentioned, is Throwing Downwards.(I-ii-9)
९.२.२: २९१.२१ऋजुनोद्रव्यस्याग्रावय्वानाम्तद्देशैर्विभागःसम्योगश्चमूलप्रदेशैर्येनकर्मणावयवीकुटिलःसंजायतेतदाकुञ्चनम् ॥
Akunchana or Contraction is that action by which a straight object becomes curved by reason of its particles at one end becoming disjoined from their original position and coming in contact with the points of space occupied by the particles at the other end. (I-ii-7).
९.२.२: २९२.३तद्विप्रययेणसम्योगविभागोत्पत्तौयेनकर्मणावयवीऋजुःसम्पद्यतेतत्प्रसारणम् ॥
Prasarnam or Expansion is that action whereby the object becomes straightened by reason of the bringing about of conjunction and disjunctions in directions opposed to the aforesaid. (I-ii-7)
९.२.३: २९२.६यदनियतदिक्प्रदेशसम्योगविभागकारणम्तद्गमनमिति ॥
Gamana or Going is that action which brings about conjunctions and disjunctions with points of space in diverse directions.
९.३: २९२.८एतत्पञ्चविधमपिकर्मशरीरावयवेषुतत्सम्बद्धेषुचसत्प्रत्ययमसत्प्रत्ययम्चयदन्यत्तदप्रत्ययमेवतेष्वन्येषुचतद्गमनमिति ।
All these five kinds of Action, appear in connection with parts of the body and things in contact with it, and is conscious as well as unconscious. Any other action that appears in the aforesaid things and also in other things without consciousness (on the part of any person), is only a form of ‘Going’.
कर्मणाम्जातिपञ्चकत्वमयुक्तंगमनाविशेषात्। सर्वम्हिक्षणिकम्कर्मगमनमात्रमुत्पन्नम्स्वाश्रयस्योर्ध्वमधिस्तिर्यग्वाप्यणुमात्रैःप्रदेशैःसम्योगविभागात्न्करोतिसर्वत्रगमनप्रत्ययोऽवुसिष्टस्तस्माद्गमनमेवसर्वमिति ।
Objection: It is not right to divide Actions into five classes, because they are all of the form of Going. Every momentary action appearing in the form of Going brings about the conjunctions and disjunctions of its substrate with even the minutest points of space either above, below or on one side of it; and every such action is equally regarded as Going; and all actions are only in the form of Going.
Reply : It is not so ; as we are distinctly conscious of each class of actions as inclusive of the like and exclusive of the unlike actions ; for instance, we have such ideas as that here we have the action of Throwing Upwards, and there of Throwing Downwards; and it is on the basis of these notions that we become cognisant of the various classes and subclasses of Action.
Then again, the presence of the particular prefixes ut and the rest distinctly indicates that each of them produces effects in distinct directions ; and thus also is established the distinct characteristic genus of each set of actions.
एवमपिपञ्चैवेत्यवधारणानुपपत्तिः । निष्क्रामणप्रवेशनादिष्वपिवर्गशःप्रत्ययानुवृत्तिव्यावृत्तिदर्शनात् ।
Objection; Then too it is not quite correct to say that “there are only five kinds of actions ; as in regard to such actions ‘entering’, ‘coming out’ and the like also, we have exclusive and inclusive notions with reference to each set of them.
Hence if in the case of ‘Throwing Upwards’ and the rest mentioned by you we have to admit of distinct classes by reason by our having inclusive and exclusive notions with regard to each set of them, then, for the same reason we may have such distinct classes as ‘coming out’ , ‘entering’ and the like also.
It might be argued that in the case of Throwing Upward &c, the nations of exclusion and inclusion are due to the fact of their producing distinct effects. But then in the case of ‘entering’ and ‘coming out’ also, we may attribute like notions to the same cause.
And when the notions of exclusion and inclusion are found to be present equally in both cases, we find no special reasons whereby we might admit distinct classes in regard to Throwing Upwards &c, and not in regard to coming out &c.
Reply : Not so, as any such distinction as you propose would give rise to cross-diversion of classes. That is to say, if on the mere ground of exclusive and inclusive notions we were to regard ‘coming out’ and the rest to be distinct classes, then we would have a cross-division or intermixture of classes.
For instance, when two men are looking at a man coming out from one room and ‘entering’ the other, the two men simultaneously have the notions of the actions ‘Coming out’ and ’entering’ — one of them having the notion ‘he comes in’ or ‘enters’ and the other the notion ‘he goes out ’.
यदातुप्रतिसीराद्यपनीतम्भवतितदानप्रवेशनप्रत्ययोनापिनिष्क्रमणप्रत्ययःकिन्तुगमनप्रत्ययएवभवति ।But if the two men are behind a curtain, and on the removal of the curtain they find that the man is not in the room where he was before, but in another room, then they have no notion either of coming out or of entering – the only idea that they have is that of the man having gone from one to the other—a notion of ‘going’ only.
Similarly, when the leaf of the bamboo falls in a whirlpool of water, and many men are looking at it then it so happens that at one and the same time they have the notions of whirling, falling and entering; hence if these were regarded as distinct classes, we would have a ‘ mixture of classes (a cross division).’
नचैवमुत्क्षेपणादिषुप्रत्ययसङ्करोदृष्टःतस्मादुत्क्षेपणादीनामेवजातिभेदात्प्रत्ययानुवृत्तिव्यावृत्तीनिष्क्रमणादीनाम्तुकार्यभेदादिति । कथम्युगपत्प्रययभेदैतिचेत्।
In regard to throwing upward &c, on the other hand we find no intermixture of notions. And it is for this reason that we regard these latter only as having distinct classes, and thereby giving rise to notions of exclusion and inclusion; while as regards for Coming out &c, these notions are regarded as being due to the distinct effects produced by them.
Question: How can there he distinct notions at one and the same time (with regard to the same object)?
अथमतम्यथाजातिसङ्करोनासितेवमनेककर्मसमावेशोऽपिनास्तीत्येकस्मिन्कर्मणियुगपद्द्रष्टॄणाम्भ्रमणपतनप्रवेशनप्रत्ययाःकथम्भवन्तीति। अत्रब्रूमःनअवयवावयविनोर्दिग्विशिष्टसम्योगविभागानाम्भेदात् ।
That is to say, if you hold that in the case of ‘throwing upward’ &c just as we have no cross-division, so too we have no inclusion of many actions,—then we ask how, with regard to one and the same action (the falling of the leaves in the whirl-pool) people could have such distinct notions as those of ‘whirling’, ‘falling’ and ‘entering’.
To the above we make the following reply : What you say is not quite correct ; as the different actions are due to the difference in the conjunctions and disjunctions of the whole object and its parts, with distinct points in space.
That is to say the person who will be looking at the object and will perceive the
gradually appearing and disappearing conjunctions and disjunctions of its parts on several sides of it with the points of space, will have the notion of whirling with regard to it while one who observes only the disjunction of the object as a whole from the points of space above and its conjunction with those below it, will have the notion of falling with regard to it;
यःपुनर्नालिकान्तर्देशेसम्योगम्बहिर्देशेचविभागम्पश्यतितस्यप्रवेशनप्रत्ययोभवतीतिसिद्धःकार्यभेदान्निष्क्रमणादीनाम्प्रत्ययभेदैति । भवतूत्क्षेपणादीनाम्जातिभेदात्प्रत्ययभेदःनिष्क्रमणादीनाम्तुकार्यभेदादिति ॥
while lastly he who observes its conjunction with the inner part of the whirlpool, and its disjunction from the outer parts, will have the notion of entering. And thus it is established that the distinct notions that we have with regard to Coming out etc, are due to the difference in the effects produced by them< Hence it is that with regard to the distinct notion with regard to ‘throwing upwards ‘ etc., to be due to distinct classes while those with regard to Coming out and the like to be due to the difference of these effects.
९.३: २९६.१अथगमनत्वम्किम्कर्मत्वपर्यायःाहोस्विदपरम्सामान्यमिति । कुतस्तेसंशयः।
Question: “Is the class ‘going’ identical with, the class ‘Action,’? or, is it a distinct class?
Wherefore does this question arise in your mind?
समस्तेषूत्क्षेपणादिषुकर्मप्रत्ययवद्गमनप्रत्ययाविशेषात्कर्मत्वपर्यायैतिगम्यते। यतस्तूत्क्षेपणादिवद्विशेषसंज्ञयाभिहितम्तस्मादपरम्सामान्यम्स्यादिति ।
In regard to all such actions as Throwing Upwards and the like we have the idea of ‘going or ’motion’ in the same way as we have that of ‘Action’ and from this it seems that the two are identical and in as much as we find going ‘ or motion mentioned separately! just like Throwing Upwards and the like, it seems as if it formed a distinct class by itself.
न। कर्मत्वपर्यायत्वात्। आत्मत्वपुरुषत्ववत्कर्मत्वपर्यायएवगमनत्वमिति।
Answer: It is not so ; because motion is synonymous with Action/ Just as the classes ‘Atma’ and ‘Purusha’ are identical so are also Motion and Action.
Question : In that case why has motion been mentioned separately?
Answer : That mention is not useless ; as it serves the purpose of including such actions as ‘walking’ and the rest.
That is to say the name ‘going’ or motion is separately mentioned for the purpose of including such actions ‘walking’, ‘falling’, ‘flowing’ and the like, which are not included in ‘ Throwing Upward and the others that are mentioned.
If it were not thus, then only the four actions mentioned specifically would have to be regarded as the objectives of those special names as well as of the general name Action.
Or, we may regard ‘going ‘ as a distinct class by itself including only such actions as walking and the like, which are the causes of conjunctions and disjunctions of diverse points of space. Then as for the application of the word ‘going’ to ‘Throwing Upwards & C, this must be regarded as secondary or indirect (or figurative) t—being due to the fact of the character of being the cause of the conjunctions and disjunctions of their substrates being common among, them.
९.४: २९७.१९सत्प्रत्ययकर्मविधिः । कथम्चिकीर्षितेषुयज्ञाध्ययनदानकृष्यादिषुयदाहस्तमुत्क्षेप्तुमिच्छत्यपक्षेप्तुम्वातदाहस्तवत्यात्मप्रदेशेप्रयत्नःसंजायतेतम्प्रयत्नम्गुरुत्वाचोपेक्षमाणादात्महस्तसम्योगाद्धस्तेकर्मभवतिहस्तवत्सर्वशरीरावयवेषुपादादिषुशरीरेचेति।
We proceed to explain the process of ‘conscious Action’—When one wishes to perform such acts as sacrifices, study, giving, land cultivation and the like,—if he wishes to throw up his hands or throw it down then there arises an effort in the soul occupying the regions of the hand; and the Contact of the soul and the hand/ aided by that effort and gravity, produces an action (motion) in the hand; and similarly in the case of the other limbs of the body, like leg &c.,(V-i-l).
Question: How is it with regard to the things connected with the hand etc?
Answer : Taking up the stick, the man has the desire to ‘ throw it up ’ by means of the hand ; then follows an effort on his part ; and when this effort influences the contact of the soul with the hand, there appears in the hand the action of being thrown up or raised ; and simultaneously with this there arises a like action in the stick, following from the contact of the hand and the stick, as affected by the said effort ( V-i-1, 2).
९.४: २९८.४ततोदूरमुत्क्षिप्तेमुसलेतदर्थेच्छानिवर्ततेपुनरप्यपक्षेपणेच्छोत्पद्यतेतदनतरम्प्रयत्नस्तमपेक्षमाणाद्यथोक्तात्सम्योगाद्धस्तमुसलयोर्युगपदपक्षेपणकर्मणीभवतःततोऽन्त्येनमुसलकर्मणोलूखलमुसलयोरभिघाताख्यःसम्योगःक्रियतेससम्योगोमुसलगतवेगमपेक्षमाणोऽप्रत्ययम्मुसलेउत्पतनकर्मकरोति ।
Then again when the stick has been thrown up to a certain point, the desire for throwing up disappears; and there appears a desire to bring it down this is followed by an effort which, affecting the aforesaid contact, brings about the simultaneous bringing down of the hand and the stick ; and the last of the series of downward motions of the stick brings about the particular kind of conjunction, called ‘abhighat’ thumping ‘ (or ‘striking’), of the stick with the mortar; this conjunction influenced by the momentum set up in the stick produces in this latter an unconscious action in the shape of an upward rebound. (V-i-3).
तत्कर्माभिघातापेक्षम्मुसलेसंस्कारमारभतेतमपेक्ष्यमुसलहस्तसम्योगोऽप्रययम्हतेऽप्युत्पतनकर्मकरोति। यद्यपिप्राक्तनःसंस्कारोविनष्टःतथापिमुसलोलूखलयोःसम्योगःपटुकर्मोत्पादकःसम्योगविशेषभावात्तस्यसंस्कारारम्भेसाचिव्यसमर्थोभवति ।
This last action and the aforesaid thumping set up in the stick a certain faculty or momentum; and by the help of this faculty, the contact of the hand with the stick produces in the hand also an ‘unconscious’ action in the form of the upward rebound. Even though the previous faculty (of the stick) is destroyed (by the thumping) yet the contact of the stick and the mortar, being capable of producing a forcible action becomes capable of producing and other faculty, by reason of the peculiar character of the contact. ( V-i-4, 5).
अथवाप्राक्तनएवपटुःसंस्कारोऽभिघातादविनश्यन्नवस्थितैति । अतःसंस्कारवतिपुनःसंस्कारारम्भोनास्त्यतोयस्मिन्कालेसंस्कारापेक्षादभिघातादप्रययम्मुसलेउत्पतनकर्मतस्मिन्नेवकालेतमेवसंस्कारमपेक्षमाणात्मुसलहस्तसम्योगादप्रत्ययम्हस्तेऽप्युत्पतनकर्मेति ॥
Or, it may be that the previous faculty itself being forcible, continues to exist, not being wholly destroyed by the thumping. And hence when an object has a faculty present in it already there is no other faculty produced in the same; hence at the time when the thumping aided by the faculty produces in the slick the ‘unconscious action of the upward rebound, that same faculty helps the hand-stick contact to produce in the hand also the ‘unconscious’ action of the upward rebound.( V-i-3 to 5 ).
We now proceed to explain the process of Motion in the case of things shot by the hand.
When there arises in man a desire to take hold of the mace by his hand and hurl it, this is followed by an effort on his part ; and by the instrumentality of this effort , from the aforesaid two contacts there arises simultaneously in the hand and in the mace, the action of contraction or drawing. (V-I 1,2).
When the arm is extended again, the effort put forth towards the contraction ceases. After this there arises in the man a desire to throw the mace either horizontally or vertically, to a distance great or small; this is followed by an effort in accordance with this desire; and by the instrumentality of this effort, is- brought about the hand-mace contact which is called ‘nodan’ or impulsion; and this (nodan) brings about an action in the mace in the form of impulsion( (V-i-9,10).
This impulsion produces in the mace a certain faculty; and from these two, Impulsion and Faculty, a number of actions go on being produced until the mace is redeemed from the hand. When this release makes the impulsion cease, and the faculty continues to produce a number of actions tending either upward or aslant, near or far— according to the nature of the effort put forth by the person,— until the mace falls on the ground ( V-i-17, 18).
९.४: ३०१.१३तथायन्त्रमुक्तेषुगमन्विधिः ।
We proceed to explain the process of Motion in the case of objects- shot from certain instruments.
The man who is- strong and has taken physical exercise, takes up the bow with his left hand ; then taking with his right hand the arrow and applying it to the string of the bow, catches hold with his fingers the arrow along with the string,—
and then there arises in his mind a desire to draw the bow along with the string and the arrow ; this is followed by an effort on his part ; and by the instrumentality of this effort the hand-soul contact brings about in the hand the action of drawing.
and at the same time, by the instrumentality of the same effort, the hand-arrow-string contact brings about an action in the string and also in the arrow; and simultaneously with this again, by the instrumentality of the hand-arrow- string contact as qualified by the said effort, the contact of the strings with the two ends of the bow, produces two actions in the two ends of the bow.
Thus the bow being drawn as far as the ear3 there appears in the mind of the person the idea that it cannot be drawn further, this idea destroys the effort that had been put forth for the purpose of drawing the bow..
Then there follows a desire for releasing the bow; this is followed by another effort on the part of the person; and by the instrumentality of this effort, the soul -finger contact produces an action in the finger, which brings about a disjunction of the string from the fingers; from this disjunction follows the destruction of their contact; this contact having been destroyed, as there is no longer any obstruction to the operation of the elasticity of the bow, which now makes the circular bow revert to its original condition; and by the instrumentality of this force of elasticity, the bow-string contact produces an action in the string and in the arrow.
This action, by the instrumentality of its own cause, produced a faculty in the string; and by the instrumentality of this faculty, the arrow-string contact brings about an ‘impulsion’ and thence brings action in the arrow, by the instrumentality of this impulsion, produces a faculty or force in the arrow.
From this faculty as helped by the impulsion follows a series of motions which continue to appear until the arrow becomes disjoined from the bow. This disjunction having put a stop to the impulsion, the further series of actions (motions) of the arrow is due to the faculty or force (momentum) imparted to it; and these motions continue until the arrow falls on the ground.
Question : How is it that so many motions appear, one after the other?
Answer: It is due to the fact of there being many conjunctions. In the interim (between the impulsion and the falling on the ground) there is a single faculty (momentum) produced; as the action (productive of the faculty) is not accompanied by its auxiliaries. (V-i-1, 8,17, 18, 18)
९.४: ३०३.२०एवमात्माधिष्ठितेषुसत्प्रत्ययमसत्प्रययम्चकर्मोक्तम् ।
Thus, have we described the ‘conscious’ and ‘unconscious’ actions of things under the guidance of the soul .
९.५: ३०३.२१अनधिष्ठितेषुबाह्येषुचतुर्षुमहाभूतेष्वप्रत्ययम्कर्मगमनमेवनोदनादिभ्योभवति ।
In the four external substances, not guided by the soul we have only ‘un-conscious’ action / and this is in the form of ‘motion ’ proceeding from impulsion and such other causes.
‘Impulsion’ is that particular kind of conjunction which is brought about by the instrumentality of gravity, fluidity, speed and effort, functioning either collectively or singly, (impulsion is a kind of conjunction as) it is the cause of that action which brings about the non-disjunction (of the impeller from the impelled) in case of all of the four external substance classes;
as we find in the case of Earth in the shape of clay ( V-ii-1, 12).
Abhighata’ or Striking is that particular kind of conjunction which is produced by speed, and which is the cause of that action which brings about disjunction.
From this also there arises action in the four elementary substances. As for instance, when such things as the stone and the like fall upon a solid body. When the clay earth is impelled and struck by the feet,—the conjunction that follows from impulsion and striking, either singly or conjointly, is of the nature of ‘samyuktasamyoga’ (‘conjunction with the conjoined’) and this conjunction also produces actions in the earth &c, ( V-ii-l, 12).
In those points in space also that are neither impelled nor struck, actions are produced,
In the case of earth and water, when there is no conjunction, effort or speed counter acting the effects of gravity, there is a ‘going down ‘ of the object, caused by gravity ;
as we have described in the case of the stick and the body &c.
In the case of these things the first action (towards falling) is due to gravity, and the subsequent ones to gravity and faculty (produced by the motion). (V-i-7 18; V-ii-3 ).
When water in the form of a current moves from a certain place downwards, this action is called ‘Flowing’; and it is due to Fluidity.
Question : How so?
Answer : (Before the water flows) its inherent fluidity is kept in check by its contact all round with the high earth-banks; and as far the fluidity , of its component particles those that are in direct touch (with the banks) —that also is kept in check by the same contact, by reason of its inhering in the same substrate (with this contact) ; and the fluidity of the other particles is- checked by the contact of the conjoined.
When however, there is the slightest breach in the surrounding embankment, then, though the fluidity of the whole volume of water is still kept in check on all sides, and hence it does not become active (begin to flow) yet the fluidity of the particle in direct contact with the opening becomes active ; and this activity is transferred gradually to the fluidity of the other particles also, as the obstruction goes on disappearing.
There is a gradual moving of these particles in conjunction with one another, and the original volume of wafer having been destroyed (by the destruction of its cohesive conjunction), the water particles adhering to one another produce another, an elongated substance (an elongated volume of water); and in this fresh substance the quality of fluidity is produced in accordance with the similar quality in its originative component particles. And thus when these originative component particles continue to move in conjunction, there is produced a like action in the composite whole also ; and to this action we give the name of Flowing) (v-ii-4).
९.५: ३०७.१०संस्कारात्कर्मैष्वादिषूक्तम्। तथाचक्रादिष्ववयवानाम्पार्श्वतःप्रतिनियतदिग्देशसम्योगविभागोत्पत्तौयदवयविनःसंस्कारादनियतदिग्देशसम्योगविभागनिमित्तम्कर्मतद्भ्रमणमिति। एवमादयोगमनविशेषाः ॥
Action produced by faculty we have already described in the case of the arrow &c.
And similarly, in the case of such things as the potter’s wheel and the like, we find that the component particles undergoing a series of conjunctions and disjunctives with definite points of space on its sides, there is produced, in the wheel as a whole an action, produced by faculty, by the instrumentality of conjunctions and disjunctions with points of space not restricted to a single place ; and this action is what is called Bhramana, ‘Revolving’. Such are the particular forms of Going or Motion.
९.५: ३०८.१प्राणाख्येतुवायौकर्मआत्मवायुसम्योगादिच्छाद्वेषपूर्वकप्रयत्नापेक्षाज्जाग्रतैच्छानुविधानदर्शनात्सुप्तस्यतुजीवनपूर्वकप्रयत्नापेक्षात् ।
Action is produced in the Air called Breath by the Soul-air contact, by the instrumentality of efforts originating from desires and aversions
and this we learn from the fact of the breathing of the waking man following the bent of his desire, and that in the sleeping man being due to the instrumentality of the effort involved in the mere act of living (v-ii-12).
Akasha, Time, Space and Soul—though having the character of substance —are devoid of action (motion) because like Generality &c., these are incorporeal.
Corporeality implies a non-pervading (limited) dimension; and action is concomitant with corporeality ; hence as corporeality is absent in akasha &c, they have no actions (v-ii-21, ; II-i-21).
In the mind that is in the body, there is an action during the waking state of the man, for bringing about the contact of another organ of perception; and this action is brought about by the mind-sold contact, through the instrumentality of efforts proceeding from desires and aversions this fact we infer from the fact that the perception of different objects by the different organs follows the bent of our wishes.
During the sleeping state, the action of the mind at the moment of waking is produced through the instrumentality of effort due to the mere act of living . (v-ii-14).
The action of ‘apasarpana’ or of outgoing and also that of ‘upasarpana’ or ‘Incoming’ of the mind proceeds from mind-soul contact, through the instrumentality of the unseen agencies (of dharma and adharma ).
Question : How So?
Answer ; Life has for its auxiliaries dharma and adharma; and when these have become exhausted by actual experience, or when they have been suppressed by each other,— the Life being deprived of its auxiliaries and also of the effort due to these, the Breathing becomes stopped ; and the mind becomes separated from the dead body by mind-soul contact, through the instrumentality of a fresh set of dharma and adharma set into activity and that action of the mind which brings about this separation is what is Called ‘apasarpana ’ or ‘Outgoing’.
९.५: ३०९.४ततःशरीराद्वहिरपगतम्ताभ्यामेवधर्माधर्माभ्याम्समुत्पनेनातिवाहिकशरीरेणसम्बन्ध्यतेतत्सङ्क्रान्तम्चस्वर्गम्नरकम्वागत्वाआशयानुरूपेणशरीरेणसम्बध्यतेतत्सम्योगार्थम्कर्मोपसर्पणमिति ।
Then the mind going out of the body comes into contact with the transportive or ethereal body (of the soul) produced by the same dharma and adharma ; and while in this body, it proceeds to heaven or to hell, and there comes into contact with a body that appears in accordance with the residual tendencies (of the soul’s past deed), and the actions of the mind that bring about this last contact is what is called ‘upasarpana’ or ‘Incoming’.
Of this same kind are the out going and incoming of the mind of Yogis, which is thrown out by them and transported for a time to any desired place.
Similarly too, the action of the mind that brings one into touch, with the new body at the time of action, is also brought about by the unseen agencies (of dharma and adharma (v-i -17).
In the same manner those actions that we find appearing in the rudimentary elements are produced, and for which we cannot find any cause either by sense-perception or by inference, and which are yet found to be useful or harmful to us,—must be regarded as produced by these Unseen agencies.
यथासर्गादावणुकर्मअग्निवाय्वोरूर्ध्वतिर्यग्गमनेमहाभूतानाम्प्रक्षेभणम् । अभिषिक्तानाम्मणीनाम्तस्करम्प्रतिगमनम्। अयसोऽयस्कान्ताभिसर्पणम्चेति ॥
For instance, the action in the atoms at the beginning of creation, the upward motion of fire, the horizontal motion I of Air, and the moving of the elements, the going of the consecrated stone to the place of the thief, and the attraction of iron by the magnet. (v-ii-2, 13, 12, 17, 7).
९.०: ३०९इतिप्रशस्तपादभाष्येकर्मपदार्थःसमापतः ॥
Thus we come to the conclusion of the chapter on the motion in the book of Prashastpad Bhashya .
>>>अनुक्रमणिका ( Back to Table of Content): पदार्थधर्मसंग्रह : प्रशस्तपाद ऋषी