(Translation Under Progress)
१०.०: ३११.१३अथसामान्यपदार्थनिरूपणम् ।
Community is of two kinds higher and lower.
It pervades over all its objectives; has identically the same form (in all cases) inhering in many individuals; it brings about the idea of its own form in one, two or many things; and it is the cause or basis of the notion of inclusion, inhering as it does in all its substrates simultaneously.
Question: How so?
Answer: It is so because as- a matter of fact we find that when we cognize each individual objects as belong simultaneously to a particular class, and we have such cognitions repeatedly, then there is produced in our minds an impression and when in view of this impression we review those past cognitions, we come to recognize a certain factor that inheres in every one of the objects cognized; and it is this factor that constitutes the Community.
The Community of ‘Being’ is the highest ; in as much as it is the cause of inclusive cognitions only.
In the case of a number of totally different things, such, for instance, as pieces of leather, of cloth of blanket and so forth,— if all of them are possessed of the same quality of ‘blueness’ with regard to each One of these we have the notion that ‘it is hue’.
and in the same manner, in the case of the totally different categories, Substance, Quality and Action, we find that with regard to each one of them we have the notion that ‘it exists;’ and this all-inclusive notion could not but be due to something apart from the three categories themselves ; and this something is what we called ‘ Satta’ or ‘Being’.
And it is by reason of the presence of ‘ being’ that we have the inclusive notion of a number of things as ‘existing’ ; hence this ‘Being’ cannot but be regarded as Community (I-ii-4, 7 to 10, 17).
The Lower Communities are, the classes of Substance, ‘Quality’ and Action and so forth. As these give rise to inclusive as well as exclusive notions, they are regarded as Communities as well as Individualities.
For instance ‘Substance’ is a Community, in as much as it serves as the basis of an inclusive notion with regard to such mutually different things as earth, water and the like ; and it is an Individuality in as much as it serves as the basis of notion exclusive of Qualities and Actions.
Similarly ‘Quality ‘ is a Community by reason of its giving rise to a notion including all qualities such as colour and the rest ; and it is an individuality, on account of it serving as the basis of a notion exclusive of substances and actions.
In the same manner, Action is a Community by reason of its serving as the basis of a notion inclusive of all the several actions of Throwing Upwards and the rest, and it is an individuality, in as much as it is exclusive of qualities and actions.
In this same manner, in the case of such Communities as Earth, Colour, Throwing Upwards, Cow, Jar, Cloth and so forth,—which inhere in animate and inanimate beings—we find that they serve as the basis of inclusive as well as exclusive notions; and as such these also are Communities as well as individualities.
Such classes; however as Substance, Quality, and Action include many individuals; and as such they are primarily regarded as Communities; and it is only indirectly or secondarily that they are regarded as Individualities, by reason of their serving to exclude their substrates from other similar Communities (I-ii-5).
That these Communities belong to a category distinct from Substance, Quality and Action, is proved by the fact of their having a character totally different from these latter.
For this same reason too they are eternal.
These again are different from one another, by reason of each of them residing in a different set of things,— substances, qualities and actions,—and also by reason of people having a distinct notion with regard to each of them.
Each of these is regarded as one in all its substrates, because its character in all remains the same, and also because there are no marks of difference.
Though Communities do not have their extension limited, yet they are regarded as extending over all their objectives ; because of the definitely restricted character of the distinguishing features of the objects, and also because of the fact of these objects having definitely distinct causes of their own.
As Communities do not exist, either by conjunction or by inherence, in the intervals (of space between two individuals of the same classes), they are not spoken of as existing (in those intervals). ( I-ii -11 to 16).
१०.०: ३१४.२३इतिप्रशस्तपादभाष्येसामान्यपदार्थःसमाप्तः ॥
So comes to the conclusion the chapter on classification from the Prashastpad Bhashya .
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